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### How to add・subtract・multiply・divide, and calculate division remainder

Being recognized as a ‘spreadsheet program’, Excel is strong in various types of calculations.

Here we will explain about the basics of Excel, the ‘**four arithmetic operations**‘.

#### Example of use 1) Four arithmetic operations

Below is a sales report of a Bakery shop.

We will calculate the total sold amount of Baguette.

① Click on cell to input formula.

② Type ‘=’.

③ Click on the unit price of Baguette (Cell ‘C4’).

④ Continue formula by typing ‘* (asterisk)’ which is a symbol for “multiplication” in Excel.

⑤ Click on the number of Baguette (cell ‘D4’).

⑥ Press Enter to complete formula.

=C4*D4

Remember that all formulas in Excel begin with the ‘=’ sign.

**C4×D4= **⇒ **=C4*D4**

**Symbols for the four operations…**

Symbol | Meaning |
---|---|

+ | Addition |

– | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

#### Example of use 2) How to calculate the ‘remainder’ in division

=MOD(number, divisor)

**[number] = Numerator (The number that gets divided)
**

**[divisor] = Denominator (The number that divides)**

Definition of function | A function that calculates the remainder from the result of the [number] divided by the [divisor]. |
---|---|

EXCEL version | Excel2003 ・ Excel2007 ・ Excel2010 ・ Excel2013・ Excel2016 |

To calculate the division remainder, we use the MOD function.

① Divide cell ‘B4’ by cell ‘D4’ and calculate the remainder in cell ‘F4’.

(1) [number] : Select cell that gets divided, cell ‘B4’.

(2) [divisor] : Select cell that divides, cell ‘D4’.

=MOD(B4,D4)

### Rounding up and down/ROUND, ROUNDUP, ROUNDDOWN function

=ROUND(number, num_digits)

**[number] = Number to round
**

**[num_digits] = The number of digits to round**

=ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)

**[number] = Number to round up
**

**[num_digits] = The number of digits to round up**

=ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)

**[number] = Number to round down
**

**[num_digits] = Number of digits to round up**

Definition of functions | A function that rounds, rounds up, or rounds down a ‘number’ based on the selected ‘num_digits’. |
---|---|

EXCEL version | Excel2003 ・ Excel2007 ・ Excel2010 ・ Excel2013・ Excel2016 |

**About the [num_digits] (number of digits)…**

The number of digits we identify in these functions is not the unit we want to round, but we identify the **digit that we want to keep after the rounding process**, using the following values. The ones is identified as ‘0’, and the smaller the unit the [num_digits] gets bigger, and the bigger the unit the [num_digits] will get smaller.

Thousands | Hundreds | Tens | Ones | Tenths | Hundredths | Thousandths |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

-3 | -2 | -1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

**Example) **If we want to round the number ‘1234.56’ to tenths, it will be:

[num_digits] = 1

#### Example of use) Rounding・Rounding up・Rounding down

Below is a sales report showing sales amounts for each employee.

We will ① __round__, ② __round up__, and ③__round down__ the total (column E).

① Round the value of the total = cell ‘E4’.

(1) [number] : Select cell with total amount, ‘E4’.

(2)[num_digits] : Since we are rounding to the nearest whole number, we input ‘0’.

=ROUND(E4,0)

② Round up the value of the total = cell ‘E4’.

(1) [number] : Select cell with total amount, ‘E4’.

(2) [num_digits] : Since we are rounding up to the nearest whole number, we input ‘0’.

=ROUNDUP(E4,0)

① Round down the value of the total = cell ‘E4’.

(1) [number] ： Select cell with total amount, ‘E4’.

(2) [num_digits] : Since we are rounding down to the nearest whole number, we input ‘0’.

=ROUNDDOWN(E4,0)

### Rounding to the nearest thousands

Let’s check how to round numbers to the nearest thousands.

Round the value of the total = cell ‘E4’ (to the nearest thousands).

(1) [number] ： Select cell with total amount, ‘E4’.

(2) [num_digits] : Since we are rounding to the nearest thousands, we input ‘-3’.

=ROUND(E4,-3)

### How to include and exclude decimals through rounding/Format cells

Through settings, Excel can automatically round decimals as the value is typed or calculated.

Now let’s try to round the total by changing the settings in the cell.

#### Example of use) Changing the cell format

① Select cell to round.

② Right click on cell and click ‘**Format cells**‘.

③ Change the display of cells by following the steps:

(1) Click [Number] on the upper left hand.

(2) Select ‘Currency’.

(3) Change the ‘Decimal places’ from ‘1’ to ‘0 (zero)’.

④ Press ‘OK’ to complete.

**What is a dialog box?**

A dialog box is a small window that appears in front of other windows, and it often appears when changing detailed settings.

In a dialog, we can check and change certain settings.